6 Short Texts

MOLECULES

Space gives rise to quarks which form atoms that join together to compose all of the organic and inorganic molecules of the material universe.

A molecule is the smallest particle any compound material can be divided into without changing into a different material.

A molecule is the next order of magnitude greater than the atom, and serves as one of the common building units of our world.

The structure of a molecule depends on the arrangement of its atoms, as well as on their kinds and numbers. For example, two different kinds of molecules may be formed depending on whether a particular atom is beside or between two other atoms.

The size and weight of a molecule varies according to the atoms which comprise it. A water molecule, for example, contains two light hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, and has a diameter of one-hundred-millionth of an inch. While larger molecules such as lead or uranium contain heavy atoms.

Without molecules, there would be no sound, no musical tones, no noise.
Without molecules, there would be no music.

Large numbers of molecules comprise the various media of gas, liquids, solids, and plasma. Sound travels within these media whenever an oscillating source causes the normally random molecules to vibrate forward and backward, producing collisions which cause the propagation of sound waves through the medium.

In their normal random motion in air, individual molecules travel at an average speed of around 1000 miles per hour, a third faster than sound. Sound travels at about 750 miles per hour in air, at sea level.

If all molecules were vibrating at the same rate and in the same direction, sound would travel at exactly molecular speed. But because individual molecules in a sound wave vibrate in many directions at different rates, the average speed of sound traveling in a medium occurs at about 30 percent less than the average random motion of the molecules.

Sounds occur wherever there are large numbers of molecules, or freely moving particles. Many sounds occur outside of the threshold of human hearing.

Sound waves occur in gas, liquids, organic and inorganic solids, and in plasmas and superconductors.

Sound waves vibrate at frequencies which range from billions of cycles per second, to a single cycle within a period of several days, months, or years.

Sounds travel in a variety of media at different velocities ranging from subsonic speeds of several feet per second, to hypersonic speeds which approach the speed of light.

Sound waves range in scale from tiny microacoustic sounds produced by thermal fluctuations of the trapped particles in a normal sound wave, as well as infinitesimal sounds generated in plasmas and superconductors, to macroacoustic sounds including seismic waves, global waves, solar waves, and galactic waves.

At the human scale, various sounds are propagated in the Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere, including normal sounds in air,
weather patterns, ocean waves, and seismic waves.

Sounds are generated on or near other planetary bodies and satellites, in the stellar wind, on the surface of stars, in interstellar dust clouds, in spiral galaxies, and in intergalactic clouds which occur in the regions between galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

 

IMPRINTING

There is evidence that the human
species has evolved from the oceans.
Our veins are filled with salt-water.
Our lungs appear to be formed
from a system of gill-like slits.

Slowly, over a long period of time,
our mammalian ancestors emerged
from the oceans to populate the land.

Some mammals, such as whales,
were forced to return to the ocean,
presumably because of their great size
which ultimately became more of a liability
on land than in the buoyancy of the sea.

Many species of fish eventually return
to the streams where they were born.
Some fish, such as salmon,
after swimming thousands
of miles over a virtual lifetime,
return to the exact spot
where there eggs were deposited and hatched.

 

Humans have remained on land, and have
roamed the oceans only with the assistance
of hydro-navigational equipment.

In all races and cultures, humans find the need
to return to their place of birth, to where they
grew up as a child, where they spent their
formative years.

This tendency gets stronger with age, and
probably represents the origins of what is
commonly referred to as nostalgia.

It is quite possible that the sensations and
feelings associated with nostalgia are a
by-product, or side-effect of this most
basic instinct, an inherent tendency
to return to our beginnings, directly
traceable to the millions of years which
we spent as creatures of the oceans.

 

A  MYTH  EXPOSED

 ‘If a Tree Falls In the Forest, and There Is No One
There To Hear It, Does Sound Actually Occur?’

 By definition, sound is an acoustic wave pattern
which is caused when a sound source disturbs the
normal random pattern of the molecules in air,
or in any other molecular medium, such as a liquid
or solid.

It is safe to assume that if a forest of trees exists,
there must be air surrounding the trees,
and if there is air, there are enough molecules
to form acoustic waves whenever the air becomes
disturbed by a sound source.

If a tree crashes against the ground, it causes the
molecules around it to vibrate at a rate which is
determined by the specific characteristics of the tree,
and the ground on which it falls.

The molecules nearest the source are rapidly pushed
forward by the fallen tree. As the molecules collide
with adjacent molecules, they are forced backward
then forward again, continually vibrating in place.
Meanwhile, each wave of molecules pushes into the
next, creating a moving wavefront which travels
outward in all directions at the velocity of sound.

The velocity, or combined speed and direction
of the sound, depends on the precise temperature
of the molecules in the air.
As the sound waves travel outward
from the source of the crash,
they form an expanding sphere of energy
which travels through the forest.
The natural energy and momentum
of the waves dissipate at a rate
which is equal to the square of the
increasing distance from the source.

All of this occurs whether or not
there is any particular sound detecting
mechanism in the forest,
including human ears,
to record or process
the acoustic wave information
traveling through the air.

 

TRUE  OR  FALSE  No. 3

Truth is a pattern of consistency.
True or false?

There are about 5 thousand thunderstorms which occur in the Earth’s atmosphere every day.
True or false?

*  Any voluntary change in an established pattern of human behavior can be
considered an act of the imagination.
True or false?

Humans are separated from other animals by (1) a sense of their own nobility?
(2) descriptive language? (3) the ability to lie? (4) morals?

The human mind and brain are identical.
True or false?

For every great idea or achievement, there are 10 times the number of explanations written about it.
True or false?

Most mammals experience something comparable to a ‘generation gap’.
True or false?

*  Consciousness evolved as a necessary strategy for combining various sensory
inputs in the brain.
True or false?

Art and music originated at about the same time and place in human evolution.
True or false?

During the 2-year period in which Thoreau was hermitted at Walden Pond, he would sometimes walk along the railroad tracks to his Mother’s house for lunch.
True or false?

Tornadoes have occurred in every state in America on every day of the year except the sixteenth of January.
True or false?

 

A. I. MODEL No. 4

Human Knowledge

It has been stated that humankind’s greatest resources
are intellect, imagination, and strength of will:
intellect, to generate ever-greater strategies
for optimal coexistence, communication, and exchange,
imagination, to model and test these strategies,
and strength of will, to administer and protect the variety
of resources we use to maintain them.

It is equally reasonable to suggest
that humankind’s greatest resource
is the accumulated knowledge
of generalized principles
which represent the behavior of all events
that occur within the knowable universe.

 

A. I. MODEL No. 5

The Experience Curve

(read slowly)

Children observe things

strictly on their own merit,

with more concern for questioning and truth,

than for justice or fairness.

Adults make observations or comparisons

based on a fixed set of values,

which may include an ideological or philosophical position.

For humans,

the pattern of making observations and comparisons

tends to reverse itself with age.

In early childhood,

we make observations openly and honestly

then, as we reach adolescence,

the pattern reverses itself

and we become obsessed with issues of justice and fairness.

This tendency levels-off in early adulthood,

gains momentum again,

and reaches its apex in mid-life.

Finally, as we approach older age

and ultimately death,

we gradually revert back

to matters of truth and questioning.

 

 

 

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